History of Refineries

In a refinery crude oil is refined into useable products which we consume for our day to day use.

Refineries of 1960s were characterized by:

    *  Low crude prices.
    *  Simple configuration.
    *  Low energy recovery.
    *  Hi sulfur FO acceptable as Internal Fuel Oil.

Ref of 1970s and 1980s were characterized by:

    *  Hi prices of crude.
    *  Birth of FCC as a secondary process.
    *  Improved energy recoveries
    *  Higher Sulfur FO was still accepted as IFO.
    *  6 MMTA has become standard economic capacity

Ref of 1990s were characterized by

    *  Increased emphasis on middle distillates.
    *  FCC to Hydro-Crackers.
    *  Hydrogenation of products on environmental pressures.
    * Elimination / reduction of Residues through Delayed Coking and Viz-breaking.

Present configuration is characterized by:

    *  Heavy & High Sulfur Crudes.
    *  Tougher Environmental terms.
    *  More of middle & light distillates.
    *  Globally competitive.
    *  Higher investments.
    * Efficient Technologies- power recovery, waste energy utilisation.

No comments: