In a refinery crude oil is refined into useable products which we consume for our day to day use.
Refineries of 1960s were characterized by:
* Low crude prices.
* Simple configuration.
* Low energy recovery.
* Hi sulfur FO acceptable as Internal Fuel Oil.
Ref of 1970s and 1980s were characterized by:
* Hi prices of crude.
* Birth of FCC as a secondary process.
* Improved energy recoveries
* Higher Sulfur FO was still accepted as IFO.
* 6 MMTA has become standard economic capacity
Ref of 1990s were characterized by
* Increased emphasis on middle distillates.
* FCC to Hydro-Crackers.
* Hydrogenation of products on environmental pressures.
* Elimination / reduction of Residues through Delayed Coking and Viz-breaking.
Present configuration is characterized by:
* Heavy & High Sulfur Crudes.
* Tougher Environmental terms.
* More of middle & light distillates.
* Globally competitive.
* Higher investments.
* Efficient Technologies- power recovery, waste energy utilisation.