Water sprinkling in field using machine

Fluoride-ion batteries may last for weeks

Smartphones and laptops of the future may not need to be charged for weeks, thanks to fluoride-based batteries which can last up to eight times longer than those in use today. 
Researchers, including those from California Institute of Technology and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), found a new way of making rechargeable batteries based on fluoride, the negatively charged form of fluorine.

A study, appearing in ‘Science’, looked into alternative batteries that go beyond the current lithium-ion versions popular today.

“Fluoride batteries can have a higher energy density, which means that they may last longer — up to eight times longer than batteries in use today,” said Robert Grubbs, a professor at Caltech. “But fluoride can be challenging to work with, in particular because it’s so corrosive and reactive,” Grubbs said.

Shoe and sandal soles cutting

Wire brush manufacturing - using automatic machine

Tyres - Types, advantages and specifications

Tyres are mounted on the rims of wheels. They enclose a tube between rim and itself. Air is filled at a designated pressure inside the tube.
The tyre remains inflated due to air pressure inside tube. The tyre carries the vehicle load and provides cushioning effect.
It absorbs some of the vibrations generated due to vehicle’s movement on uneven surfaces.
It resists the vehicle’s tendency to over steer or turn which cornering. Tyre must generate minimum noise when vehicle takes turn on the road.
It provide good grip with the road surface under all conditions.

Two types of Tyres are used in vehicles :
(a) Tube Tyres, and
(b) Tubeless Tyres.

Tube Tyres:
Tube Tyres encloses a tube which is wrapped on the wheel rim. Air is forced into tube which inflates the tube and tyre. The outer side of tyre which comes in contact of road is made from rubber It is called tread.
Tread provides resistance to slipping. It is very thick at the outer periphery. Beads are made at the inner bide by reinforcing it with steel wires.
Beads are very strong which have good resistance to wearing against the wheel rim. Rayon cords are also formed into a number of piles. Beads are cords provide good strength to Tyres.

Tubeless Tyres:
These Tyres do not require any tube. The air at pressure is filled into the tyre itself. The construction of tyre is same as that of tube tyre. For filling the air, a non-return valve is filled in the tyre itself.

Advantages of Tubeless Tyres:
(a) Tubeless Tyres are lighter in weight.
(b) They remain cooler compared to tube Tyres.
(c) The main advantage of tubeless tyre is that they remain inflated for long time even if these are punctured by a nail if the nail remains inside the tyre.
(d) Any hole in the tyre, due to puncture, can be repaired by rubber plugging.
(e) A simple puncture can be repaired without removing tyre from wheel.

Every tyre is specified by its size. Its specification is given as follows :
8.25X 30 X 6 PR
Meaning of these Numbers:
(a) 8.25 : It mean that thickness of tyre from shoulder to shoulder is 8.25 inches.
(b) 20 : It means that diameter of bead circle is 20 inches.
(c) 6 PR : It means that six ply rating. It means that tyre consists of 6 plies. Different type of Tyres have different plies. Number of plies increase as load increases, e.g. a car tyre has 4 to 6 plies and a light truck may have 6 to 10 plies.